Document Type : Original Article
Department of Research and Development, UOP, Vian, Austria
Job stress has serious consequences for both workers and employers. Stress is an effective factor in organizational inefficiency, manpower turnover, job absenteeism, reduction in quality and quantity of work, increase in health care costs and decrease in job satisfaction. Numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that organizational or occupational tasks that are fraught with overwork and excessive needs and responsibilities lead to many health risks. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between job stress and mental health by emphasizing the mediating role of coping strategies in formal and contractual experts of Zanjan Jihad Agricultural Organization, because the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture is one of the most important and key ministries. It is the government that has great missions in the field of food security and self-sufficiency in the production of basic products and export development of agricultural products, following the various principles of the country's constitution, the provisions of the 20-year vision document, and many articles of the Fourth Development Plan law. It is responsible for providing natural resources and growth opportunities of 6.5% in the agricultural sector.
According to the review of sources, even though so far research has been done on the variables of this research, to achieve more robust results in this study, not only each of these variables is examined separately, rather, considering job stress as an independent variable and mental health as a dependent variable, the relationship between these two variables will be identified in the employees of the Jihad Agricultural Organization of Zanjan Province as part of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. Research has shown that other variables overshadow the effect of job stress on mental health. In this study, coping strategies are considered as mediating variables and their relationship with other variables will be examined [1-4]. In addition to examining the relationship between the three main variables in this study, according to the data obtained from the questionnaires and achieving the individual characteristics of the respondents, the relationship between individual characteristics and these variables will also be examined [5-7]. By conducting this research, valuable information will be obtained from the working conditions in the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, according to which the managers of this ministry can be helped in making future decisions to make the conditions for the growth and development of the organization smoother. By examining and determining the relationship between the variables of this research in the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture and providing suggestions based on the results obtained, for managers, this ministry will be assisted in performing its duties to be on the path to achieving its goals [8-10]. The present study can achieve two very valuable results to solve many organizational problems by examining two important influential variables in government organizations, namely job stress, and mental health, considering the coping strategies of individuals according to individual characteristics [11-13]. Recognizing these variables and examining their relationship helps organizations to always pay more attention to creating the right conditions to reduce stress and increase mental health. In this case, the organization in question in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, and increasing production is at a very high level. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to identifying job stress and its impact on mental health according to individual characteristics and coping strategies, to identify factors and identify strategies to reduce job stress and improve psychological problems in the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture can be helpful [14-16].
Job stress, in general, is a state of being under pressure through various aspects of the job, such as role dimensions, increasing job demands, role conflict, and workload, which have significant psychological and physiological consequences for individuals. In the present paper, job stress is evaluated with a job stress questionnaire. This questionnaire has 10 items and includes three factors: Physical environment, job conflict, and role ambiguity [17-19].
Strategies to Cope Stress
Confrontation involves efforts, both action-oriented and intra-psychological, to manage and control environmental and internal demands and conflicts between them. Coping has two main functions: Regulating unhealthy and helpless emotions, and taking action to change and improve the problem that is causing the discomfort. Accordingly, Lazarus and Folkman have identified three general methods of coping: Problem-oriented coping styles; emotional coping styles, and avoidance coping styles [20-22].
Problem-oriented coping styles are active problem-solving methods that are used to resolve the stressful relationship between oneself and the environment. The main problem-oriented styles are: Confrontational confrontation (militant attempts to change the situation), seeking social support (trying to gain emotional and informational support from others), and problem-solving style with a plan (trying Problem-oriented measures to solve the situation) [23-25].
Emotional styles are how people achieve an optimal level of emotional regulation and the ability to deal with intense and critical situations and emotions. The most important of these styles are: Self-control (trying to regulate and control a person's emotions), distancing (trying to break away from the situation), re-evaluating and adjusting (trying to find positive meaning inexperience with an emphasis on personal growth), and avoidance style (trying to escape or avoid the situation).
Avoidant coping styles are strategies that are subconsciously adopted to distance and avoid the source of stress, whether avoiding at the level of thinking and denying the existence of a stressor or avoidance at the level of action. In this paper, coping strategies are evaluated with a questionnaire to deal with stressful events. This questionnaire has 48 items and includes three methods of problem-solving, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping [26-28].
Operational and Theoretical Definitions of Research
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health is the ability of an individual to communicate harmoniously and harmoniously with others, the ability to change and improve their social environment, and the appropriate and rational resolution of their emotional conflicts and personal desires. The main goal of mental health is to help all people achieve a fuller, happier, more harmonious life, broader knowledge, and prevention of mood, emotional and behavioral disorders. In the present study, Goldberg and Hiller General Health Questionnaire is evaluated. This questionnaire has 28 items and includes four subscales of physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders, social functioning, and depressive symptoms [29-31].
Work is an important part of every person's life and in one hand can satisfy several basic human needs such as cultivating body and soul, establishing social communication, creating a sense of worth, self-confidence, and worthiness. Many mental health professionals consider workplaces as one of the centers for providing mental health promotion, because it is the local work environment where people spend most of their time and energy (music, worship, and conquest). But on the other hand, it may also be the main source of stress so that the work environment and the prevailing conditions such as difficulty and time of work, type of clients, and the quality of relations with colleagues can play a role [32-35].
In the workplace today, the cost of chronic work-related illnesses is increasing, which is a clear reason for job stress. In recent decades, various studies have been conducted on the relationship between work, stress and its consequences in health care workers, in which issues such as productivity, occupational accidents, absenteeism, and increasing physical and mental injuries in different occupational groups have been studied [36-38].
Definition of Mental Health
The concept of mental health includes the inner feeling of well-being and self-confidence, self-reliance, competitiveness, intergenerational dependence, and self-fulfillment of potential intellectual and emotional abilities, and so on. Of course, given the differences between cultures, it is impossible to provide a comprehensive definition of mental health. However, there is a consensus that mental health is more than the absence of mental disorders, and what is certain is that maintaining mental health is as important as physical health. According to WHO, health, which is complete well-being and not the absence of disease, is not limited to physical health, but is also related to the psychological and social aspects of human life. Mental health is a state of mind with emotional health relatively abandoned from the symptoms of anxiety and inability to establish constructive relationships, cope with desires and stimuli. Has defined the stressful aspects of life. Few families can be found who do not have mental disorders or do not need help and care during a difficult period. Nevertheless, we pretend to be ignorant and ignore or deny these facts. Maybe it is because we do not have enough mental health information to talk about. In other words, we do not know how many people in need of services do not benefit from this assistance. Mental health is associated with behavioral and emotional aspects of daily life as well as relationships between people that can have a positive or negative impact on quality of life. In addition, mental health is directly related to the development of stronger families who have closer ties and can raise happy children. The goal of mental health is to develop communities in which the criterion of respect is individual abilities and the amount of help and support for each other. Depression is the fourth most common health problem reported by the WHO and its severity of the disability is comparable to the eight major chronic medical conditions. The consequence of this disease in patients with heart disease is its deteriorating physical and mental condition.
WHO defines health as complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of patients and health distress. In a holistic view, the psychological, social, and physical aspects are considered and their relationship to the environment is considered. In another definition, WHO defines mental health in terms of biological and social aspects. According to the Mental Health Organization, a person has the ability to build harmonious relationships with others and the ability to participate in changes in the social and natural environment with the ability to help change in a constructive way. Mental health also requires that there is harmony between one's instinctual desires. There is no reference to the disease in this definition. Psychological health is also a definition provided by psychologists and social and behavioral scientists about the effectiveness and appropriate psychological performance of human beings [39-41].
The concept of mental health is in fact an aspect of the general concept of health. Although the word health is known to us and has a specific meaning, it is not easy to define and has different meanings for different people. The literal meaning of health is to be perfect, flawless, and holy. From the seventh to the sixteenth century, psychological health was defined as piety, and psychosis was a form of satanic passivity. After the sixteenth century, mental health was redefined as naturalistic and at the same time with the psychic renaissance in the late nineteenth century and the emergence of neuroticism, mental health was typically defined as the absence of mental illness.
Psychological health can usually be defined in three ways: First, it means self-awareness or lack of self-deception, resolving internal conflicts and conflicts, and accepting and following the destiny and destiny of humanity. This definition has been accepted. The second definition includes self-actualization and self-realization, that is, to realize the innate and inner psychological abilities of the individual, which is possible after the realization of the development of inner peace and purity by using a kind of psychological transformation. Carl Jung Gordon All port, humanists like Maslow and Rogers have embraced this view. The third definition of psychological health is the extent to which an individual has been able to integrate into a "sustainable social network." Eric Erickson, Adler, and many sociologists have accepted this definition. Mental health, in addition to being the goal of any society, is also a measure of a person's health. The term has several meanings that vary from community to community, culture to culture, so there are different patterns and perspectives on mental health in psychology. These views are referred to below.
Criteria for Mental Health or Healthy People
Mental health, in addition to being the goal of any society. It is also a measure of a person's health. The term has several meanings that vary from community to community, culture to culture, so there are different patterns and perspectives on mental health in psychology. These views are referred to below [42-45].
For Diane, (2010), mental health enhances our ability to understand reality (as it happens), to respond to its challenges, and to take sensible steps toward life. The characteristics of healthy people according to Diane are as follows: a) Ability to perform duty and personal responsibility, b) ability to establish human relationships with others, c) having realistic perceptions of the motives of others, and d) having a process of thinking and rational thinking.
Erickson, (2009), a psychosocial theorist, describes the characteristics of a healthy person to have a) self-confidence and others, b) the ability to control themselves and their emotions, c) the ability to accept responsibility as well as competence and skills in life, d) unity and clear identity and the ability to establish sincere relationships with others, and d) the ability to guide others to be creative and accept themselves as a single person as they are.
According to Alexander, (2008), healthy people have the following criteria of mental health: They have positive mental activity. Studies have shown that neurotic individuals and unhealthy individuals lack this characteristic and that useful mental activity can be used to assess mental health. They have also control and unity of thought and action. Effective control is one of the safest signs of a healthy person. The characteristic of unity of thought and action, commonly referred to as personality unity, is not usually seen in the mentally ill. Further, they have healthy and positive feelings and emotions. Emotions such as insecurity, incompetence, anger, jealousy, humiliation, and guilt are signs of emotional disorder and can lead to mental illness. Contrary to these feelings, acceptance, love, belonging, security, and personal worthiness are signs of emotional stability and mental health, and emotional health is a major part of mental health. Healthy human beings enjoy a lot of comfort and peace of mind. This criterion is often mentioned in the discussion of mental health and other criteria of adaptation and mental health are related to peace of mind. Healthy attitudes towards life events is another characteristic of healthy people. Mental health is impossible due to hostility or prejudice or prejudice and despair. Imagining oneself as a healthy person, having an individual identity and a sufficient relationship with reality are other characteristics of mentally healthy people.
There are conditions for good mental health, including facing reality, adapting to change, having room for anxiety, low expectations, respecting others, not being hostile to others, and helping people. According to research by the National Mental Health Association: Mentally healthy people feel comfortable. They accept themselves as they are. They use their talents. They are patient about their physical defects and disabilities and do not get upset about them. They have a realistic outlook and make life difficult. They spend little time in worry, fear, anxiety, or jealousy, they are often calm. They are open to new ideas and are kind. They have a sense of humor and are not afraid of it. They also have a value system that stems from their personal experiences. That is, they have a personal feeling that things are right or wrong. Mentally healthy people feel good about others. They try to love and trust others. Because they want others to love and trust them. Such people can have warm relationships with others and continue these relationships. They care about and respect the interests of others. They have the power to meet the needs of life. They usually feel responsible for the person's actions and deal with problems in the same way that they occur. They have also realistic ideas about what they can and cannot do. So, they shape themselves as much as they can and adapt as much as they need to.
M. Alphin. Consequences of Job Stress on Mental Health with Emphasis on Strategic Intermediaries. Int. J. Adv. Stu. Hum. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1):51-56.
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