Document Type : Original Article


Master of Public Linguistics, Iran


Error patterns in these children are produced in a constant manner with specific errors. The performance of these children is poor in phonological awareness, trans linguistic and reading and writing tasks. Children with stable phonological disorders perform normally in oral motor tasks and speech motor planning. Children who show such errors have language-cognitive defects in linguistic rules. It may be difficult for children to learn to pronounce words correctly. This is actually a part of their growth process. Over time, their speaking skills gradually improve. Children at any age master certain words. Most children at the age of 8 can pronounce all the sounds of different letters well and correctly. But some children have problems in pronouncing the sounds of letters and words. This means that they are unable to pronounce some sounds and words that should be pronounced without problems at their age. This disorder makes it difficult for the child to understand the lessons. Disturbance in pronouncing sounds includes the child's "Phoneme expression disorder" and "Problem in phonological process": Phoneme expression disorder: In this type of speech disorder, it is difficult for the child to pronounce some sounds correctly. For example, pronunciation of phonemes that requires special movements of the tongue in the mouth. Like the vowels "L" and "R" are difficult for him. Disturbance in the phonological process: A child with this type of speech disorder has wrong repetitions in pronouncing words. For example, he does not pronounce some phonemes of a word.


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Sami Publishing Company remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Sami Publishing Company



[1]. N.V. Smith, Cambridge University Press, 1973.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[2]. N. Jalilevand, Z. Damarchi, B. Mahmoudi Bakhtiari, M. Reza Keihani, Language and Linguistics, 2011, 7, 51-60. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[3]. J.P. Stemberger, C. Stoel-Gammon, Elsevier, 1991, 181-199. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[4]. B. Ghonsooly, S. Ramezani-Aliteimour, Language and Linguistics, 2016, 11, 27-48. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[5]. J.A. Gierut, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1999, 42, 708-726. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6]. O. Bat-El, Language Sciences, 2009, 31, 117-135. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[7]. Y. Rose, Ph.D. Dissertation. McGill University, 2000.  [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[8]. B.H. Bernhardt, J.P. Stemberger, (No Title), 2000.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[9]. Y.Y. Cho, Stanford University, 1990. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[10]. Y. Rose, C. Dos Santos, Recherches linguistiques de Vincennes, 2006, 77-102. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[11]. P.V. de Lacy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2002.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[12]. D.A. Dinnsen, J.A. Barlow, M.L. Morrisette, Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 1997, 11, 319-338. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[13]. D.A. Dinnsen, K.M. O'CONNOR, Journal of Child Language, 2001, 28, 597-628. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[14]. P. Fikkert, C.C. Levelt, J. van de Weijer, A paper presented at GALA, Utrecht, 2002.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[15]. S.R. Gerlach, University of Minnesota, 2010.   [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[16]. H. Goad, Language Acquisition and Language Disorders, 1997, 16, 113-142.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[17]. A.L. Gormley, University of British Columbia, 2003.  [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[18]. J. Pater, In Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 2002, 21, 348-372.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[19]. K. Jesney, Journal, 2007, 188-199.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[20]. R. Kager, Cambridge university press, 1999.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[21]. N. Kim, PhD. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 2010. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[22]. P. Kiparsky, Handout from TREND, 1994, 2. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[23]. L. Lombardi, Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 1999, 17, 267-302. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[24]. T. McAllister Byun, I. Sharon, 2014.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[25]. J. McCarthy, A. Prince, Atas talian, 1994.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[26]. J.J. McCarthy, A. Prince, Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series, 1995, 10.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[27]. J.J. McCarthy, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[28]. P.F. MacNeilage, B. Davis, Psychology Press, 2018, 453-476.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[29]. C. Paradis, J.F. Prunet, Academic Press, 2014, 2. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[30]. J. Pater, A. Werle, Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 2003, 48, 385-408. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]