Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, University of Bangladesh University (BU), Bangladesh

2 Department of Psychology, Abarkouh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abarkouh, Iran


Examining the history and perspectives on emotional intelligence, some psychologists do not accept emotional intelligence as an independent intelligence. These are people who consider intelligence as a single talent and do not believe much in the divisions and types of intelligence. From the point of view of these people, intelligence is a unit of cognitive talent that has many dimensions and aspects that appear according to the environmental conditions and individual characteristics, certain aspects or aspects of it. Among these dimensions, we can mention the emotional dimension, the moral dimension, and the social dimension. On the other hand, some other psychologists have accepted it with all their might and intensity, and have so far gained its name and title. Therefore, in the field of psychology, emotional intelligence is not a virgin and is merely a kind of terminology initiative and a kind of word processing skill. The term emotional intelligence is a combination of two words: Intelligence and emotion. These two words are not adjectives to mean intelligence that is emotion, but they are adjectives and adverbs; that is, intelligence that is related to emotion. In this case, emotional intelligence is not an independent intelligence, but a part and aspect of the same talent that is channeled in emotions and appears in this dimension.


Main Subjects


To understand the authoritative dominance of emotions over the rational mind - and why emotions and logic are intertwined, the evolution of the brain is examined [1-4]. The size of the human brain, which consists of about 1,350 grams of nerve cells and cell fluid, is about three times the size of the brains of close relatives in the evolutionary cycle, the non-human primates [5-7]. Over millions of years of evolution, the brain has evolved from the bottom up, and its higher centers have evolved from the expansion of the lower and older parts [8-10]. In such a way that the growth of the brain in the human fetus goes through almost the same evolutionary path. The earliest part of the brain in all their nerve types is the brainstem, which surrounds the upper part of the spinal cord [11-13]. The root of the brain regulates basic vital functions such as respiration and metabolism in other organs of the body and controls reactions and stereotyped movements. It cannot be said that this primitive brain thinks or has the power to learn; rather, it is a set of pre-programmed regulators that move the body as it should and react in a way that allows it to survive. In the age of reptiles, this brain ruled. Imagine a snake threatening to attack; "Face to face." Emotional centers arose from the most basic structures of the brain, the brainstem [14-16]. Millions of years later during evolution, from these emotional parts arose the thinking brain or the new cortex of the brain, the large cortex composed of the intertwined issues that make up the upper layers of the brain [17-19]. The fact that the thinking brain is made up of the emotional brain makes the connection between thought and emotion even clearer, as the emotional brain existed long before the rational brain emerged. The evolution of the old emotional centers began with the olfactory part, and these centers eventually became so large that they surrounded the upper part of the brainstem. In the early stages, the olfactory center consisted of narrow nerve layers that were used for odor analysis. One layer of these cells received what the person smelled and classified it into different categories, edible or poisonous, sexual partner, enemy or prey [20]. The second layer of cells sent reflex messages through the nervous system to give the body the necessary instructions: Bite, spit, approach, escape, chase, and hunt. With the emergence of the first mammals, new and original layers of the emotional brain emerged; these layers, which surround the brainstem, look like a loaf of bread that has been bitten on the bottom, where the brainstem is located. Because this part of the brain is wrapped around the brainstem and encloses it, it is called the limbic system, whose literal root is the Latin word "Limbus" meaning ring. This new neural area added the right excitement to the brain complex. When we are captivated by longing or anger, or overwhelmed by love or fear, it is the limbic apparatus that holds us in its grip. The amygdala, or almond, is a structure embedded in the lateral apparatus and is the center of behavioral emotion awareness at the subconscious level [21-23]. Almonds send everyone to the limbic current state in relation to their surroundings and thoughts, and based on their connection to the hypothalamus, are able to generate appropriate behavioral emotional responses in us, such as straightening hair in times of fear, widening pupils in times of joy. Heart rate rises during anger. For this reason, almonds are called the basic part of the reward and punishment system and the regulatory center in emotional intelligence, which is called the emotional brain [24-26].

Importance and Benefits of Emotional Intelligence

Life without passion and emotions is like a heavy barren land that is full of fruitlessness and cut off from the richness of life. But for Aristotle, what is desirable is an appropriate feeling; it means a feeling that fits the situation. When emotions are severely suppressed, they create boredom and distance, and whenever they get out of control, that is, if they are severe and late, they get sick. There is ample evidence that people with emotional skills excel in any area of ​​life; whether in emotional and intimate relationships, or in understanding the unspoken rules that lead to organizational policy, whether in education, child-rearing, and family matters, or in mental and personality health [27-29].

If a person has a high level of emotional intelligence, he can better adapt to the challenges of his personal and social life and manage his emotions effectively, and as a result, provides the basis for increasing his physical and mental health. From all of the above, it can be concluded that today the amazing effect of emotional intelligence on areas such as physical and mental health of individuals, their health and perfection of personality, health and strength of interpersonal and extra personal relationships, strengthening learning and facilitating education, success, and progress is well-known. There is no doubt about organizational management, better family management, and effective child-rearing [30].

Areas of Application of Emotional Intelligence

Psychological research, such as Gardner, Salvi, Mayer, Barr, Gelman, etc., shows that emotional intelligence is effective in many areas. These include the areas of interpersonal relationships (self-knowledge and self-fulfillment), extra-personal relationships (social relationships), marriage, home, and family relationships, child-rearing, education and learning, mental and personality health (mental health and mental disorders), psychology, medicine and physical health, psychiatry, counseling and guidance, work and employment, organizational and industrial management, economic development, community leadership, and so on. The following are some general areas to be considered and elaborated:

Emotional intelligence and communication

Emotional intelligence is primarily manifested in communication. These relationships include the intrapersonal domain in one hand and the interpersonal domain on the other. Therefore, we can speak of two general competencies in both personal and social areas. In the personal sphere, emotional intelligence focuses on the abilities, competencies, and competencies that regulate a person's relationship with himself. In these areas, we deal with components such as self-awareness, self-confidence, emotion management, and initiative [31]. The competencies of this section are meaningful to each other and are considered to strengthen each other. For example, accurate self-awareness is a good platform for increasing self-confidence, and emotion management plays a prominent role in increasing self-confidence. As emotions are better managed in practice and success becomes practical, one's self-confidence increases. In the social sphere, emotional intelligence deals with the abilities, competencies, and competencies that regulate a person's relationship with others. Components such as empathy, organizational awareness, conflict management, teamwork, influence, nurturing others, and communication with others are in this area [32-34].

Emotional intelligence and family

Guttman et al., ( 2019) probed into whether the couple would get divorced in the future by looking at just five minutes of a couple talking and how they expressed their opposition. The accuracy of the findings of Guttman et al. was 93%. Some of these couples were under him and his group's supervision for fourteen years, and their predictions came true. This study showed that it was not the number of disagreements of a couple that matters, but the effort that both of them made to solve the problem amicably, and the repair of the situation that affects the success of their relationship [35-37].  It is said that a relationship is at a high level in terms of emotional intelligence when a couple spends their energy on repairing differences [and correcting similarities]. Repair means showing the love and affection of a husband and wife to each other regardless of their conflict. Repairs reflect the fact that emotional intelligence skills are used within the relationship. Repair means leaving behind anger, violence, and enmity with one's spouse. The first hope for successful repair is rooted in one's self-awareness [38].

Research from Emory University (2018) has shown that a child's emotional intelligence is the product of displaying parents' emotional intelligence skills, not their personal experience of emotional stress [39]. Children learn emotional intelligence skills from their parents. If they do not follow their parents' example, they will, in fact, lose the best source of learning. Parents who practice emotional intelligence with their children raise older boys and girls who are happier, have more social adjustment, score better, and achieve more professional success in adulthood. Children who increase their emotional intelligence skills reduce their rates of apostasy, laziness, and delinquent behavior. Wherever a child starts, increasing his or her emotional intelligence will improve his or her relationships with his or her classmates. If you are a role model for children in terms of emotional intelligence, they will develop the skills they need to get along with others and experience more success; success that will continue in adulthood [40-42].

In democratic societies, raising happy children is the most important responsibility of parents. There is no factor more vital to a child's happiness than a happy parent, and no factor can be more vital to the success of democratic societies than the existence of happy citizens. Happy children will become good citizens in the future, because they will never resort to anti-social behaviors that destroy society [1].

Emotional intelligence and health

Emotional intelligence is closely related to mental health and physical health. That is why emotional intelligence has been studied, researched, and studied in areas such as psychology, counseling and guidance, medicine, and psychiatry.

Every problem, during its life, is ready to be solved and eliminated. Emotions are a means by which you can take action to solve a problem. By understanding your emotions, you can skillfully get through problems and avoid the next ones. If you do the opposite and suppress your emotions, they will quickly turn into feelings of tension, stress, and anxiety. Emotions that are ignored paralyze the brain and body. Emotional intelligence skills enable you to avoid difficult situations before they become uncontrollable, making it easier for you to manage stress. People who are unable to use their emotional intelligence skills are more likely to use other less effective methods [such as medications] to manage their mood and mood. They are twice as likely as others to be anxious, depressed, or addicted, and even have suicidal thoughts. Emotional intelligence has a huge impact on people's happiness and satisfaction. People who use their emotional intelligence are more adaptable to their surroundings, show high self-confidence, and are aware of their abilities. The direct relationship between emotional intelligence and a good and healthy life shows how important it is to pay attention to emotions, to be aware of them, and to use them to guide behavior. The more you use your emotional intelligence skills, the more you will achieve in life.

The results of research in recent years have shown that there is a high correlation between emotional intelligence and susceptibility to various diseases. Stress, anxiety, and depression weaken the body's immune system and make it vulnerable to all illnesses, from the common cold to cancer. When the mind is overwhelmed by stress, discomfort, or anxiety, it sends a message to the body to reduce the amount of energy it uses to fight disease. This increases the vulnerability to serious or new types of disease. Recent medical research shows that there is a clear link between anxiety and serious illnesses, such as cancer. Emotional intelligence skills also accelerate the return to health, i.e. people who are sick but develop their emotional intelligence skills during treatment recover from many illnesses, including the deadliest one [4].

The physical effect of emotional intelligence on the brain and various systems of the body is so strong that research at Harvard Medical School has practically shown that physical changes occur in the brain along with changes in emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence skills enhance the brain's ability to cope with emotional anxiety. This causes the body's immune system to remain strong and more resistant to disease. Good mood and good thinking (good emotion - good thinking) is perhaps the most important effect of emotion and emotion in their effect on thoughts and responses. When we feel good, we see the world and those around us beautifully. When we are depressed and homesick, everything seems bleak. When we feel good, we see the world through glasses of optimism and vice versa [5].

The emotional function also affects a person's neuropsychological function. When we are in a good mood, we remember good memories, and when we are depressed, bad memories come to mind automatically. The higher an individual's emotional intelligence, the more aware he or she is of the role and impact of emotions on his or her actions and behaviors, and the more he or she tries to create the best emotion appropriate to the situation to do the best kind of thinking and problem-solving. A person with high emotional intelligence knows how to correct the negative effect of emotions on their thinking. Sixty years ago, a study by Razran (2018) found that people who were exposed to bad breath were more likely to make negative comments about irrelevant topics than those who felt good and happy after a free lunch. Emotions affect not only the content of cognition and behavior (what we think and do), but also the process of cognition [46].

Emotional Intelligence Model its Burden on Physical Health

Studies show that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and physical health. They were randomly selected from a typical local population sample. The most important difference between the two groups according to the overall results of emotional intelligence, in fact, the strongest scale of emotional-emotional intelligence that distinguished the control and experimental groups was optimism, which was the most important facilitator of emotional intelligence behavior. Another study by Bar-Ann (2015) focused on 3,571 adults who completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and responded to the questionnaire with the questionnaire, "I feel good about my general health." This question was a tool for providing self-assessment. Physical health can show the degree to which an individual's emotional intelligence is affected; the results of multiple regression analysis showed a correlation of 0.49 [7].

Based on the strong emotional intelligence scales, it is clear that the ability to self-awareness, the ability to manage emotions and control emotions, the ability to solve individual and interpersonal problems naturally, and the ability to maintain an optimistic mood are significantly related to physical health.

Emotional Intelligence Model and its Burden on Mental Health

In Another study by Bar-Ann (2015) that assessed the relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health, the emotional intelligence scores of 418 psychiatric patients matched with controls in Argentina, Israel, South Africa, and the United States were examined. In addition to the significant differences that were seen in the whole emotional-emotional intelligence in emotional-emotional intelligence scores, significant differences were seen in most scales between the samples of clinical and control groups [4].

Findings from studies show that the strongest components of emotional-emotional intelligence, skills, and facilitators that affect mental health include: a) The ability to manage emotions and cope with stress, b) attraction to personal goals are related to the blossoming of individual inner potentials and having a meaningful life and the ability to review and deal with feelings and thoughts.

Such large findings are tolerable, because deficiencies in each of these areas lead to anxiety (inability to effectively manage emotions), depression, (inability to achieve personal goals and achieve a meaningful life, respectively), and Problems with reality testing (inability to control emotions and thoughts). The need for this becomes apparent when most pathologies of mental disorders show a deficiency of one or more cases of emotional intelligence [11].


When we go to work, we take the excitement with us; they are like annoying intruders, shadow after shadow all day long. The sooner we become aware of our emotions and know them better, the sooner we will be able to regain control of the situation. Understanding and managing emotions is the only way we can take full advantage of our day and move toward our career goal in life. What effect does the use of emotional intelligence have on career success? The short answer is that too much. Using emotional intelligence is a great way to focus energy in one direction and get great results. Bradbury and Graves (2018) tested emotional intelligence alongside 33 important job behaviors and found that emotional intelligence incorporates most of them, including time management, motivation, insight, and communication. Emotional intelligence is so essential to success that it accounts for 60% of performance in all types of jobs. Emotional intelligence alone is the greatest factor for predicting individual performance in the workplace and the strongest force for leadership and success. Perhaps the best advantage of emotional intelligence is that it is a very flexible skill. No matter how or high people's emotional intelligence is, people can still improve it with practice, and those who score low on emotional intelligence can actually put themselves on the same level as their co-workers. Research (2016) from the University of Queensland, Australia, shows that people with poor emotional intelligence and poor job performance can reach out to colleagues who excel in both just by trying to improve their emotional intelligence. After studying a large number of people in the workplace, it was found that 90% of those who have excellent job performance also have very high emotional intelligence. People who develop their emotional intelligence are usually successful in their jobs, because emotional intelligence and job success go hand in hand. Organizations and institutions as a whole also use emotional intelligence. As the skills of thousands of people increase in a company, industry, and business make great strides. Emotional intelligence skills improve leadership, teamwork, and customer service. Completely different organizations, such as L'Oreal and the U.S. Air Force, have saved millions of dollars by implementing emotional intelligence skills programs. Every time companies introduce emotional intelligence to their employees, there is a pervasive enthusiasm of all employees. If an organization or company can create pervasive energy for an educational concept or topic, that energy will soon spread to all employees and create a situation in which everyone will thrive. As people develop or improve their emotional intelligence, their performance improves, they treat each other better, and the benefits of work increase. This helps to create an environment in which everyone is satisfied, satisfied, and victorious.

Citation Z. Saeid, F. Mohammadkhani Orouji. Evaluation of a Model of Emotional Intelligence in Psychology and Its Effects on Career Success and Career Advancement. Int. J. Adv. Stu. Hum. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2):97-103.


Copyright © 2022 by SPC (Sami Publishing Company) + is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC BY)  license  (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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