Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Abarkouh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abarkouh, Iran


Parenting stress can be briefly defined as: a series of processes that lead to a series of unpleasant psychological and physical reactions due to trying to adapt to the requirements of the parenting role. This process is often in the form of negative feelings and experiences about oneself. The individual and the child are experienced. These negative emotions stem directly from the role of parenting. But it should be borne in mind that this simple definition of parenting stress should not detract from the fact that parenting stress involves a wide range of dynamic and complex processes. These include: communication with the child and his behaviors, parental role requirements, parenting resources, parental responses to responsibilities and demands, the quality of parental communication with the child and other family members, and communication with other individuals and institutions outside the home. The process of stress is related to coping skills, successful adaptation to the requirements of the parenting role; And for many people, these parental demands are manageable, and despite the difficulty of doing so, especially at certain points in life, they can be rewarding.


Main Subjects

[1] R.R. Abidin, Journal of clinical child psychology, 1992,21, 407-412.
[2] M.J. Alexander, E.T. Higgins, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1993, 65, 1259-1270.
[3]  J.S. Ambikile, A. Outwater, Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 2012, 6, 1-11.
[4] J.C. Arango-Lasprilla, S.L.O. Plaza, A. Drew, J.L.P. Romero, J.A.A. Pizarro, K. Francis, et al. Neuro Rehabilitation, 2010, 27, 83-93.
[5] R. Bar-On, Perspectives in Education: Postmodern (Narrative) Career Counselling and Education: Special, 2005, 23, 41-62.
[6] D.W. Barnett, J.D. Hall, R.K. Bramlett, Journal of School Psychology,1990, 28, 13-20.
[7] R.C. Barnett, N.L. Marshall, J.D. Singer, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1992,62, 634-655.
[8] S.J. Bartlett, J.A. Krishnan, K.A. Riekert, A. M. Butz, F.J. Malveaux, C.S. Rand, Pediatrics,2004, 113, 229-237.
[9] K.D. Bendell, W. Stone, T. Field, S. Goldstein, Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,1989, 8, 58-71.
[10] R.L. Brown, R.J. Turner, Journal of aging and health, 2010, 22, 977-1000.
[11] D.B. Bugental, C. Johnston, Annual review of psychology,2000, 51, 315-344.