Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium


This study aimed to investigate and model psychological factors influencing learning approaches of agriculture students. A sample of 89 agricultural students from Tehran University (Iran) and 85 agricultural students from Flemish university (Belgium) participated in this study. Data were collected via a questionnaire and after that, descriptive and inferential statistics were applied for data analysis, using SPSS/v16.0. Our study revealed that both similarities and differences can be observed on the psychological characteristics of agricultural students in different cultural contexts. The findings showed that there were significant differences between the two groups (Iranian and Flemish students) on deep learning. So, the finding confirmed that learning approaches were context dependent. In this study, achievement motivation has been taken as a mediator between psychological factors and learning approaches in each cultural context. According to the findings in the Iranian and Flemish context, the most psychological dominant determinant for deep learning was self-efficacy beliefs and extroversion, respectively. For both groups, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation had positive effects on surface learning and deep learning, respectively. Also, the two motivations showed negative effects on deep learning and surface learning, respectively. According to the findings, recommendations were put forth.


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