Fletcher et al. (2009) in an experimental study of 50 medical students examined the effect of emotional intelligence training on improving physician-patient communication and concluded that the medical students in the experimental group who received the intervention were relatively the control group who showed a good improvement in their communication with the patient [1-4]. Makna (2007) in his research investigated the effect of emotional intelligence on physical patients. He believed that many people with disabilities and people with chronic illnesses experience negative emotions due to illness stress and poor mental adjustment [5-8]. Cognitive assessment of people with disabilities affects both their emotional response and their emotional management, so managing their emotions in the rehabilitation process is essential . The researcher in this study concluded that psychotherapists can not only help regulate the emotions of these people by teaching emotional intelligence, but also help effective therapeutic relationships. Slaski and Cartwright (2003) in their quasi-experimental study examined the effect of emotional intelligence training on stress in 60 British managers [10-12]. They concluded that emotional intelligence training reduces stress and improves health by increasing emotional intelligence. Bar-An (2005) in the study explained the effect between emotional intelligence and a good mind. In his research, he pointed out that emotional intelligence, in addition to improving performance, also affected people's minds and perspectives and improved personal thinking (Figure 1) [13-15].
Figure 1. Parenting Stress and Parental Efficacy
Jordan et al. (2002) mentioned emotional intelligence as a modulator of emotions and behavioral reactions in unsafe job situations [16-18].They reported that emotional intelligence for employees acts as a moderator of emotions and behavioral action in unsafe job situations, and they can control the stress and emotions that result from that situation [19-21]. Sharifi Daramadi et al. (2005) researched the effect of emotional intelligence training on the general health of mothers of children with cerebral palsy in Isfahan in which 50 mothers of children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups; the experimental group was given eight sessions of emotional intelligence training. They reported that there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. In other words, emotional intelligence training increased mental health and social adjustment [22-25]. Yar Mohammadian et al. (2011) focused on the effect of emotional intelligence training and life skills on marital adjustment of young couples . The method of work was the quasi-experimental method and pre-test and post-test design of the control and experimental groups. 60 people were selected by simple sampling method and randomly assigned to two experimental groups and a control group [27-29]. The results showed that emotional intelligence training and life skills had a significant effect on the marital adjustment of young couples. Roshanbin et al. (2007) investigated the effect of a positive parenting group program on parenting stress of mothers of children aged 4-10 years with ADHD. In this study, the mothers of the children participated in 6 weekly and 120-minute face-to-face sessions and 2 sessions of 15-minute positive parenting group training (Figure 2). The present study lacked a control group. The results showed that this program had a positive effect on reducing stress. Parenting has become especially popular in the field of children and parents [30-34].
Figure 2. Stress Survival Kit with Personalization
Although children's ability and self-sufficiency in self-care develops over time, it is a time-consuming and multi-year process. In addition, these potentially stressful events that surround the child and his behaviors are usually small and not severe, and occur on a daily and continuous basis, and are moderate to moderate. As mentioned earlier, these daily stressors are the mainstay of parenting stress; however, for many parents, although rare, stressful events do occur [35-39]. One of the events that lead to a lot of stress and stress is hearing the news of the infant or child's disability. Parents who were already expecting a healthy child with a thousand hopes and aspirations and had a bright future in mind for them, when they realize that their baby or child has a chronic disability or physical illness, they experience a lot of stress and psychological pressure [40-42]. One of these disabilities, which brings with it many demands for care, is a physical-motor disability. This disability, in which part or parts of a person's body loses their function, makes the person dependent on others; as a result, he cannot do some of his daily work in person. Children with physical disabilities are dependent on their mothers for their physical problems and place restrictions on them (Figure 3) [43-46].
Figure 3. Main environmental stress conditions/factors affecting the survival
In fact, the mothers of these children suffer from a lot of stress compared to other mothers of healthy children and even compared with many other disabilities, which leads to a lot of stress in them. However, the attitude of parents, which is derived from their temperament, personality, emotions, beliefs, and physiology, has a very strong effect on the type and amount of parenting stress [47-49]. Furthermore, stresses usually have an overlap that occurs either because they occur at the same time or because some individual aspects of the parent or child themselves generate other stresses. Your parenting role can potentially be a source of stress where parenting stress can arise from social stress [50-55]. These social stresses include threats to parental identity, mental health or public health, excessive responsibilities (burnout), or low responsibilities that lead to fatigue and abandonment of parenting. Structural constraints in the social environment can also lead to physical and psychological isolation, low benefits, the difficulty of daily life, uncertainty, interpersonal conflicts, limited choices, deprivation of personal resources are all factors that can be claimed [56-58]. Parenting is a social role that exists inside and outside the family. Parents need to meet their own needs, the needs of their children, as well as the needs imposed on them by other family members (such as spouses), the community, and society at large . Social roles are considered very valuable by members of the community and are very stable over time and situations. Thus, for some parents, the stress of persistent and chronic parenting is likely to result from a sense of failure to meet the expectations of others [60-63].
In addition to the presence of external factors or events that have been described as stressful, e.g., child behavior, parental social role, the wide variety of people's attitudes is very important in evaluating and defining these experiences. In other words, in the sequence of the stress process following a causal or accident factor, parents should not only understand the stressor but also assume it as a threat or unpleasant experience that they try their best to stop. To accomplish this mechanism, a cognitive assessment is needed, which is through the assessment of stress consisting of at least six dimensions: Value or capacity (how unpleasant it is), control (can I change or pass it), and Change (does it go away on its own), ambiguity (what happens), the likelihood of stress happening again, resemblance to stressful situations and situations [64-67]. Parental attitude regarding the causes of child misbehavior is an important part of the process of assessing parenting stress. Parents who tend to see their child crying, moaning, and misbehavior as a result of the child's own desire are more likely to hold the child responsible for harmful behaviors . They express more expressive stress reactions. Instead, other parents who see their children's harmful behaviors as temporary or situational (for example, he or she does not feel well today) are less likely to blame their children for their misbehavior, know or find it difficult to control. In addition to differences in people's attitudes toward evaluating their children's behaviors, cultural differences also affect people's perceptions of good and bad behaviors. Although parents' attitudes and evaluations of children's harmful behaviors are very important, this does not mean that Parenting stress simply occurs in the minds of parents. For example, for almost all adults, hearing a certain type of infant crying is inevitably unpleasant and stressful. However, individual differences in parents' assessments of their attitudes toward a stressor are important in the stress process. It is because of this difference in people's attitudes toward the stressor that some parents cope well with parenting responsibilities while others do not .
When an accident occurs that is potentially stressful, parents can use a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies to reduce their stress responses. The frequency and variety of adaptation mechanisms are as great as the frequency and range of problem behaviors in children. Parents in the same situation show adaptation mechanisms in different ways, and others perform better. This explains why some parents who have had their child with chronic illness for years show milder stress reactions, while others are more deeply affected.
Some adaptation mechanisms work in a preventive way, which work to reduce the stress response by reducing the frequency and severity of the causal accident and increasing the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral resources of the individual, and are used at the time of a stressful event. An example of this could be preparing and planning to become a parent. Adults who reported that they were preparing and planning to become parents and that they were planning to become pregnant showed lower levels of stress than those who reported that their parenting was unexpected and unintentional. Similarly, there is a difference between adults who feel ready, emotionally, physically, and motherly well prepared for a new and stressful childcare job, and people who are not ready. It is not surprising that parents who feel ready and confident about their parenting abilities (for example, parenting adequacy) are more likely to be effective in the parenting role and to be satisfied with the parenting role . Other strategies come up in the hottest moment when a stressful event happens or a stressful reality occurs (Figure 4).
Figure 4. A Universal Stress Protein That Controls Bacterial Stress Survival in Micrococcus luteus
Control Over Sources of Stress
The concept of controlling for stressful resources for parents - especially their child's behavior - can be related to parents' assessment of specific examples of child behavior, whether it is harmful or not. Parents vary widely in the extent to which they view the child's problematic behaviors, e.g., aggression, violence. It does not affect them. In addition, there are individual differences in parents' attitudes about their power to control their children's behaviors. In general, research shows that parents who believe that their child's misbehavior is due to their intentional anger or to things they do are more likely to use violent methods in raising their children. Such parents are less likely to believe that they are in control of their child's behavior. They pay attention to and have good control over what is around them; they are more likely to use adaptation mechanisms that focus on problem-solving .
According to the burden model of emotional intelligence, which considers its effective management of personal, social, and environmental changes, it can be concluded that parents who have higher emotional intelligence than their life changes, including the role of parenting and stress, they respond well and can manage problem-solving and decision-making through flexible and reality-oriented coping methods .
The birth of a child is a big change in the life of parents, which is followed by special stress such as parenting stress. This is the special stress of the parenting role. Also, this stress has the greatest impact on parental behavior and children's development compared with other stressful areas of life and is a strong predictor of children's behavioral and emotional problems. For example, the researchers studied a group of homeless families at risk for physical and mental health problems. Because of the stressful sources that this group faced in their daily lives, there were families among them, who had high levels of parenting stress, which in turn resulted in children with the highest levels of difficulty in social and cognitive development. Therefore, parenting stress can be particularly influential as the cause. Also, the consequences of a range of parental and child behaviors should be considered. However, parenting role stress cannot be completely separated from other stresses, roles, and experiences. There are certainly overlaps between the stresses we experience in different roles. A distinctive feature of any parenting stress theory is the idea of coordination and balance between parents' understanding of the demands and responsibilities of this role and access to available resources to meet those needs and demands. In fact, this balance between demands, needs, and available resources is central to most theories of stress and coping. Parenting stress occurs when these demands and responsibilities arise from the role. Parenting cannot be satisfied by available resources. These responsibilities created for parents are many and varied and include meeting the specific needs of the child and the demands arising from the social role of the parents. In addition to other responsibilities and demands of the parenting role, meeting the needs of the child such as the need for survival (food, housing, care and maintenance, and other items) and psychological needs (attention, love, help control and regulate emotions) are vital. Of course, in addition to the needs and demands created, parents' perceptions of their children's behavior and attitudes and perceptions of their own competence as parents are considered important in most theories of parenting stress. Parenting stress can happen even to parents who have all the resources they need for a stress-free life, such as adequate income, housing, and social resources, etc. But this parenting stress is due to the fact that there are fundamental and distinct differences between parents in families; however, parenting stress manifests itself more in the individual experiences of parents in parenting.
F. Sultanai. Causes and Sequences of Parenting Stress for the Survival of the Infant or Child. Int. J. Adv. Stu. Hum. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1):42-50