Document Type : Original Article

Author

Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Rangamati Science & Technology University, Bangladesh

Abstract

This article aimed at identifying the factors which lead to job stress in faculty members in public universities in Bangladesh. For data collection purpose, a comprehensive questionnaire was disseminated among 140 faculties of various public universities in Bangladesh, of them 40 usable responses were received. Nowadays stress are increased in teaching profession which leads to greater job dissatisfaction. The finding of the study showed that, there were various factors primarily responsible for generating stress level among faculty’s members in public universities. These contributing factors to stress at work place included political unrest, rate of payment, lack of professionalism, long working hour.

Graphical Abstract

Factors Determining Job Stress: A Study on Faculties of Public Universities in Bangladesh

Keywords

Main Subjects

Introduction                                                         

Work or job activity has a strong impact upon human but it can create stress. Work environment or task affects employee’s mental states such as physical, emotional, social and that’s producing depression, frustration. Worsening of mental health leads to employee’s poor performance to make decision, and communication difficulties in team and group work. The tasks of university teachers have changed significantly in recent years and gradually their work appears to be under pressure. University teachers have numerous responsibilities at home and work place. They performed as a researcher, mentor as well as doing various types of family work, and social work. This high amount of work load leads to decreased job performance and job satisfaction. The cost related with stress is tremendous as claimed by Colligan and Higgins (2006). According to Ali and Newaz (2010), people gradually understand that occupational stress is putting a great impact on their activities, soundness of body and prosperity. The aim of this research was to find out the leading job stressors that the public university faculty members of Bangladesh are currently experiencing.

 

 

Review of Literature

According to Chothani (2015), stress is defined as a state in which somebody feels pressure to perform the assigned tasks with the available resources. These situations are created when incompatibility or variation between an individual and the adjacent lead to the outbreak of a stressful situation. As Shahid et al (2011) claimed, stress is the result of a repressive collaboration between a person and the surroundings that goes beyond the boundary of one’s modifying resources.

Human service-oriented jobs like teaching is stressful as dealing with people is ever challenging (Tytherleigh, Webb, Cooper, & Ricketts, 2005). Ironically it is the thoughtful of some people that teaching is a profession of relaxation. Some people think that teachers’ work is traditional. In fact, they add, teachers have plenty of opportunities for enjoying themselves. Some others also think that teachers have direct control over their time schedule, more autonomy, lack of accountability, and less workload. But that is not true at all; these thoughts are mere misconceptions and misunderstandings about teaching as the grass is always greener on the other side (Vanderberghe & Huberman, 1999). The roles of a teacher are more dynamic, complex, and challenging day by day and these things are separated than any other professions in the world (Johnson et al., 2005). Today world is not stagnant, it is ever changing. Teachers do this great job by engaging themselves in research activities, classroom activities, investing time, and working under stress. 

Johnson at al. (2005) conducted a study on 26 different occupations experiencing work related stress. Of the 26 occupations, six were considered the most worrying considering mental and physical concerns and teaching was found one of them. Based on other similar studies conducted previously, it can be said that teaching is a tense profession (Rahman & Avan, 2016).

As far as public university teachers in Pakistan are concerned, homework interface, role vagueness, workload, performance pressure had a direct impact on job stress (Bhatti et al, 2011). Ahsan et al (2009) conducted a research on teaching stressors and most of the cases were of terrific workload, increasing work hour, changing technology, variety of task and meeting performance deadlines. Pearson and Moomaw (2005) claimed that three factors account for to the rise of job stress of the university faculties: Lack of professionalism, lack of recognition, and lack of autonomy.

The Research Gap

Job stress is one of the burning topics of human resource management researches. So, a large number of studies have been conducted by the researchers of India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and some other developed countries to identify the factors of job stress, their possible significances and the tonics to lessen them. Bangladeshi researchers have also done a lot of work on this topic. But their focusing areas were mainly on bankers or other corporate companies’ employees. There were a few studies conducted so far on the public university faculty members who were experiencing huge stress at work. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the major factors of job stress of faculties serving public universities in Bangladesh.

 Research Method

 

1.

Target Population

Elements

Faculties’ of Public Universities in Bangladesh.

Sampling Unit

Faculty members

 

Extent

Public universities in Bangladesh.

Time

2021

2.

Nature of the study

Descriptive Research

3.

Sampling Technique

Judgemental Sampling technique was used.

4.

Scaling technique

5 point Likert Scale, which was used for my study.

5.

Data Used

Both Primary and secondary data were used for my study.

6.

Sample Size

100

 

 

Results and Discussion

 Table 1 shows the mean, standard deviation and number of respondents (N) in the study. The mean values of the stressors indicate rate payment, autocratic administration, political unrest long, working hour etc. are the important stressors to the public university faculty members of Bangladesh since the mean values of these variable are 4.1600, 3.9600, 3.9600, 3.9300 etc.                           

 

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of stressors

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Excessive_Workload

100

3.1100

1.05309

Work_lifebalance

100

3.8200

1.38082

Job_Security

100

3.1200

1.17448

Rate Payment

100

4.1600

.66241

Chance_Promotion

100

3.4800

1.28299

Long_Workinghour

100

3.9300

.86754

Autocratic_Administration

100

3.9600

.95261

Non_cooperativecolleague

100

3.8000

.87617

Role_Ambiguity

100

3.6400

.94836

Insufficient_Resources

100

3.7400

.82413

Political_Unrest

100

3.9400

.77616

Lack_Professionalism

100

3.6500

.79614

Lack_Recognition

100

3.6500

1.12254

Lack_Autonomy

100

3.5600

.87985

Teacher_Studentratio

100

3.1800

.84543

Valid N (listwise)

100

 

 

 

 

 

Based on Likert scale, 5 indicates strongly agree, 4 indicates agree, 3 indicates neutral, 2 indicates disagree and 1 indicates strongly disagree.

 

 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's Test

According to KMOtest, the sampling which is greater than 0.5 is considered satisfactory. Any pair of variables which had a value less than 0.5 was removed from the analysis. As shown in Table 2 below, the KMO measure is 0.566 which indicates that the number of samples was adequate for this study. Bartlett's test is one of the hints that shows the strength of the relationship among variables. In Table 2, the Bartlett's testof sphericity is significant (.000), which means there is a strong correlation among the variables.

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.566

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

495.114

Df

105

Sig.

.000

 

 

 

 Principal component analysis

To determine the most important stressors in the job of university faculties, principal component analysis was used. It focused on the following statistics:

 

 Communalities

Communalities express how much of the variance in the variables has been comprised for by the extracted factors. Based on Table 3 below, over 89% of the variance in political is unrest, over 79% of the variance in insufficient resources is made for while 78% of the variance in job security is comprised for. Rest of the variables is shown in the following table:

Table 3. Communalities

 

Initial

Extraction

Excessive_Workload

1.000

.694

Work_lifebalance

1.000

.645

Job_Security

1.000

.783

Rate_Payment

1.000

.760

Chance_Promotion

1.000

.755

Long_Workinghour

1.000

.604

Autocratic_Administration

1.000

.743

Non_cooperativecolleague

1.000

.585

Role_Ambiguity

1.000

.651

Insufficient_Resources

1.000

.796

Political_Unrest

1.000

.891

Lack_Professionalism

1.000

.757

Lack_Recognition

1.000

.777

Lack_Autonomy

1.000

.705

Teacher_Studentratio

1.000

.737

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 Total variance

Total variance determines the number of factors extractable from the analysis along with their eigenvalues, the percent of variance attributable to each factor, and the cumulative variance of the factor and the previous factors. Note that, the first factor accounts for 24.017% of the variance, the second 15.044%, the third 9.165%, and the fourth 8.901%. All the remaining factors are not significant.

 

Table-4: Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

3.603

24.017

24.017

3.603

24.017

24.017

2.581

17.204

17.204

2

2.257

15.044

39.061

2.257

15.044

39.061

2.090

13.934

31.138

3

1.375

9.165

48.226

1.375

9.165

48.226

1.911

12.743

43.881

4

1.335

8.901

57.126

1.335

8.901

57.126

1.584

10.558

54.439

5

1.238

8.252

65.379

1.238

8.252

65.379

1.362

9.079

63.518

6

1.077

7.180

72.559

1.077

7.180

72.559

1.356

9.041

72.559

7

.893

5.955

78.514

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

.694

4.628

83.142

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

.583

3.887

87.029

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

.511

3.407

90.436

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

.431

2.872

93.308

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

.361

2.408

95.716

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

.279

1.860

97.576

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

.229

1.525

99.101

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

.135

.899

100.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       

 

 Scree Plot

The scree plot is a graph of the eigenvalues against all the factors whereas theeigenvalues refer to the standardized variance associate with a particular factor. The graph is useful for determining the numbers of factors to retain. Based on graph 1 below, factors 1 to 4 have the eigenvalues more than 1 and the remaining factors (factor 5 to 15) have the eigenvalues of less than 1, so only four factors have been retained out of fifteen.

Graph 1: The Scree Plot

 Rotated Component (Factor) Matrix

Rotated component matrix was used to determine the specific factor under each component. In Table 5 below, one can see the various factors: Job security, role ambiguity, lack of professionalism and lack of recognition are substantially, loaded on Component 1; chances of promotion, long working hour and non-cooperative colleague loaded on component 2; rate of payment, autocratic administrative are substantially loaded on component 3; political unrest loaded on component 4, excessive workload and teacher-student ratio are loaded on component 5, 6, respectively.

 

Conclusion

There are 53 public universities in Bangladesh. More than 400000 students are receiving higher education from these institutions. If stress levels of faculty members are increasing day by day it will decrease satisfaction levels and it can have negative effects on the nation because teachers are contributing vastly to build up a nation. According to the results of this study, we can see the results where job security, role ambiguity, lack of professionalism and lack of recognition are substantially responsible for job stress. So, it is mandatory to create a favorable environment for the nation builders to encourage them to provide the best service.

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